Question:

Could you give a basic guideline as to when does one need to make qadha’ only for a broken fast, and when does one need to give kaffarah along with the qadha’? What if someone ejaculates but without any intercourse?

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In principle a fast is invalidated through three main actions of “iftaar”: eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse. Fuqaha’ have explained that the occurrence of above invalidators of fast comprises of two essential aspects:

  1. Soorah (Which is the outer appearance of the act. e.g. eating is intake of nourishment into the stomach through mouth; sexual intercourse is act of sexual intimacy through intercourse via penetration etc.)
  2. Ma’ni (where the actual objective of the act. It is not necessary to have the outer appearance of the act. e.g. nasal spray although attains the primary objective of eating, i.e. nourishment to stomach, but it does not have the outer appearance of eating; ejaculating (seminal fluid) through means other than actual penetration like kissing, hugging or masturbation etc. are not sexual intercourse themselves in appearance, but they attain the objective of sexual intercourse i.e. fulfillment of passion)

If the invalidating actions are carried out during a Ramdhan fast such that they have both aspects, “a” (i.e. Soorah), and “b” (Ma’na), then a qadha’ (make-up fast) and a kaffarah (expiation) for that fast must be given.

Whereas, if the invalidating actions only has ONE of the above aspects, i.e. either “a” or “b”, then although the fast will invalidate but only a qadha’ will become wajib. There will be no kaffarah.

An example of an act fulfilling the ma’na of “iftaar” but no soorah is application of nasal spray during fasting such that the medication goes down the throat. The objective of nutrition into the stomach is found, while the appearance of food consumption is not found. Hence only a qadha is wajib and no kaffarah.

Similarly, an example of fulfilling the soorah of “iftaar” but no ma’na is eating pebble. While swallowing a pebble may look like consuming and breaking one’s fast, the pebble does not have any nutrition. Hence the objective behind the consumption, i.e. nutrition is not found. In this case also, only qadha’ will become wajib and no Kaffarah.

Finally, an example of fulfilling both soorah and ma’na of “iftaar” would be application of asthma inhaler. It is designed to be taken orally through mouth, and it has the ma’na of nutrition going down the throat. Hence both aspects are found and doing so will necessitate a qadha’ as well as a kaffarah.

In the case mentioned in your question, ejaculation through playing and fondling fulfilled the objective of sexual intercourse, but the outer appearance of sexual intercourse was not found. Hence it only has the aspect of ma’na. This means with the ejaculation, the fast broke and qadha’ must must be made up after Ramadhan. However, there is no need to pay any expiation through kaffarah.[1]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mufti Faisal bin Abdul Hameed al-Mahmudi
www.fatwa.ca 

 


[1]

(“أو” أنزل “بتفخيذ أو بتبطين” أو عبث بالكف “أو” أنزل من “قبلة أو لمس” لا كفارة عليه لم ذكرنا)… “لما ذكرنا” أي من قصور الجناية وعليه القضاء بوجود معنى الجماع ولو قبلت زوجها فأمنت فسد الصوم وإن أمذى أو أمذت لا يفسد كما في الظهيرية (حاشية الطحطاوي على مراقي الفلاح شرح نور الإيضاح (ص: 676))

((وإن جامع) المكلف آدميا مشتهى (في رمضان أداء) لما مر (أو جامع) أو توارت الحشفة) أي غابت وهذا بيان لحقيقة الجماع؛ لأنه لا يكون إلا بذلك ط (قوله: في أحد السبيلين) أي القبل أو الدبر وهو الصحيح في الدبر والمختار أنه بالاتفاق ولوالجية لتكامل الجناية لقضاء الشهوة بحر ((في أحد السبيلين) أنزل أو لا (أو أكل أو شرب غذاء) بكسر الغين وبالذال المعجمتين والمد ما يتغذى به (أو دواء) ما يتداوى به والضابط وصول ما فيه صلاح بدنه لجوفه ومنه ريق حبيبه فيكفر لوجود معنى صلاح البدن فيه دراية وغيرها)… أقول: وحاصله أن الخلاف في معنى الفطر لا التغذي لكن ما نقله عن المحققين لا يلزم منه عدم وقوع الخلاف في معنى التغذي ولكن التحقيق أنه لا خلاف فيه ولا في معنى الفطر؛ لأنهم ذكروا أن الكفارة لا تجب إلا بالفطر صورة ومعنى ( الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 409))