Question:

My fiancée is in abroad and he is my cousin, and he cannot come to my place due to financial problems and office work. To avoid talking in phone in a haram way, we want to marry online with the presence of wali and witnesses. is this permissible in islam?

Answer:

Bismillahi Ta’ala,

Assalamu Alaikum Warahmatullah,

In principle, Nikah is enacted with an ijaab (proposal) and qubool (acceptance) in the past tense in the presence of two witnesses. The condition that the witness must see the ijaab and qubool cannot be fulfilled through phone, skype, or internet nikah. Hence such a nikah will not be valid. [1]

As an alternative to this, a proxy nikah can be conducted. Proxy means a representative of either the girl or the boy carries out the nikah on his/her behalf. It is not a condition that the appointment of representative (wakeel) be witnessed as well. [2] Hence the procedure will be as follows:

Procedure 1:

Groom (A) wishes to marry Bride (B) who is in a different place. ‘A’ appoints a representative (C) to represent him and propose on A’s behalf.

This appointment is simple representation, and can be implemented by ‘A’ saying to ‘C’ : “I duly authorize you to conduct my marriage with ‘B’ on my behalf for a mahr of $x“.

At an appointed time, ‘C’ will present himself to B and relay the proposal by saying, “I, being a representative for ‘A’, marry ‘A’ to ‘B’ in lieu of $x Mahr in presence of the two witnesses

At this time the ‘B’ (Bride) will accept this proposal by saying, “I have accepted“.

Procedure 2:

Groom (A) wishes to marry Bride (B) who is in a different place. ‘B’ appoints a representative (C) to represent her and accept the proposal her behalf.

This appointment is simple representation, and can be implemented by ‘B’ saying to ‘C’ : “I duly authorize you to conduct my marriage with ‘A’ on my behalf for a mahr of $x“.

At an appointed time, ‘C’ will present himself to A and relay the proposal by saying, “I, being a representative for ‘B’, marry ‘B’ to ‘A’ in lieu of $x Mahr in presence of the two witnesses

At this time the ‘A’ will accept this proposal by saying, “I have accepted“.

The above process of proposal and acceptance must take place in the presence of either

a)      Two sane, mature (baligh), muslim males   OR

b)      One sane, mature (baligh), muslim male and One sane, mature (balighah), muslim female.

Remember that it is sunnah of Rasulullah salallahu alayhi wasallam to announce the marriage [3]. In accordance of the above guidelines, the nikah will be enacted and valid.

Wallahu A’lam,

Mufti Faisal al-Mahmudi

www.fatwa.ca

[1] قال عامة العلماء: إن الشهادة شرط جواز النكاح (بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 252))

[2] (قوله: وشرط حضور شاهدين) أي يشهدان على العقد، أما الشهادة على التوكيل بالنكاح فليست بشرط لصحته كما قدمناه عن البحر، وإنما فائدتها الإثبات عند جحود التوكيل. وفي البحر قيدنا الإشهاد بأنه خاص بالنكاح لقول الإسبيجابي: وأما سائر العقود فتنفذ بغير شهود ولكن الإشهاد عليه مستحب علية. اهـ. (الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 21))

[3] (قوله: ويندب إعلانه) أي إظهاره والضمير راجع إلى النكاح بمعنى العقد لحديث الترمذي «أعلنوا هذا النكاح واجعلوه في المساجد واضربوا عليه بالدفوف» (الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 8))